Chkdsk is a Microsoft application that can be used to check for and recover bad sectors on a production machine. The chkdsk application must be run with Administrator privileges. It uses the following command syntax:

CHKDSK [volume[[path]filename]] [/F] [/V] [/R] [/X] [/I] [/C] [/L[:size]]

Chkdsk may not detect corruption in the disk structure if you run the utility in read-only mode on a volume that uses the NTFS file system. You must run chkdsk with the /R option to most reliably detect and correct corruption issues on an NTFS volume.


volume Sets the volume to work with 
path/filename Specifies files to check for fragmentation (FAT16 and FAT32 only) 
/F Fixes errors on the disk 
/V Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk (FAT16 and FAT32); displays cleanup messages if any (NTFS) 
/R Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information (implies /F) 
/X Forces the volume to dismount first if necessary (implies /F) 
/I Performs a minimum check of index entries (NTFS only) 
/C Skips checking of cycles within the folder structure (NTFS only) 
/L:size Sets the log file size (NTFS only) 
/B Re-evaluates bad clusters on the volume (NTFS only; implies /R) 

All information from the Microsoft Press book Windows 7 Administrator’s Pocket Consultant by William R. Staneck.

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